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Edward Hitchcock

by Louise Fiske

Edward Hitchcock (24 May 1793 – 27 February 1864) was an American geologist and the third President of Amherst College (1845–1854).


Born to poor parents, he attended newly-founded Deerfield Academy, where he later became principal 1815-18.

Orra Louise White

He married Orra Louise White in May, the same year he  was ordained as a Congregationalist pastor of the Congregational Church in Conway, Massachusetts . He served there from 1821-25. His first son Edward was born In Amherst Massachusetts May 9, 1822 and died on March 15, 182. He is buried there, in a single grave in Conway.  His family is buried in Amherst, Massachusetts.

Howland Cemetery, Conway Massachusetts. Grave of Edward Hitchcock

On September 10, 1823 he delivered the Discourse on the utility of Natural History before the Medical Institution  in Pittsfield, Massachusetts.  This particular copy of the evening is signed to a Professor Cleveland and signed only “By the Author.”

Hitchcock left the ministry to become Professor of Chemistry and Natural History at Amherst College. He held that post from 1825 to 1845, serving as Professor of Natural Theology and Geology from 1845 to his death in 1864. In 1845 Hitchcock became President of the College, a post he held until 1854. As president, Hitchcock was responsible for Amherst’s recovery from severe financial difficulties. He is also credited with developing the college’s scientific resources and establishing its reputation for scientific teaching.

In addition to his positions at Amherst, Hitchcock was a well-known early geologist. He ran the first geological survey of Massachusetts, and in 1830 was appointed state geologist of Massachusetts (he held the post until 1844). His chief project was natural theology, which made the attempt to unify and reconcile science and religion, with a focus on geology. His major work in this area was The Religion of Geology and Its Connected Sciences (Boston, 1851). In this book, he sought out ways to re-interpret the Bible to agree with the latest geological theories. For example, knowing that the earth was at least hundreds of thousands of years old, vastly older than the 6,000 years posited by Biblical scholars, Hitchcock devised a way to read the original Hebrew so that a single letter in Genesis—a “v”, meaning “afterwards”—implied the vast timespans during which the earth was formed.

Dinosaur Footprints preserved as natural casts

Hitchcock left his mark in paleontology. He published papers on fossilized tracks in the Connecticut Valley, including Eubrontes and Otozoum, that were later associated with dinosaurs, though he believed, with a certain prescience, that they were made by gigantic ancient birds. In the Hitchcock Ichnological Cabinet, he established a remarkable collection of fossil footmarks. His son, Edward “Doc” Hitchcock, named one of the earliest dinosaurs discovered in America, Megadactylus polyzelus. Later it was reclassified as the type specimen of Anchisauruspolyzelus (ACM 41109), a prosauropod. This botanist is denoted by the author abbreviation E.Hitchc. when citing a botanical name.

The Appleton Cabinet circa 1858

As he had researched the geologic lake which once filled the Connecticut River basin, this prehistoric lake was named after him. Since he had done geological research on the Holyoke Range, one of the mountains there, Mount Hitchcock, was named after him.

His collections, a bust and portrait can be viewed at the Amherst College Museum of Natural History. The Archives and Special Collections at Amherst holds his papers.

Fold- out Paleontological chart of Edward Hitchcock in “Elementary Geology” 1840

Recently, a paleontological chart was discovered in his Elementary Geology (1840).It shows a branching diagram of the plant and animal kingdom against a geological background. He referred to it as a tree. This ‘tree of life’ is the earliest known version that incorporates paleontological and geological information. However, it is not a true evolutionary tree of life, because Hitchcock saw a Deity as the agent of change. He explicitly rejected not only atheistic evolution, but a six day creation as well. New species were introduced by a Deity at the right time in the history of the earth. The chart is present in all editions between 1840 and 1859. After Darwin (1859) published his Origin of Species, a tree of life image was generally interpreted as an evolutionary tree. In the 1860 edition of Elementary Geology Hitchcock dropped the chart. In 1863 Hitchcock wrote an article in which he refuted Darwin’s theory of natural selection. After his death in 1864, his son Charles Henry Hitchcock(1836–1919) published a new edition (1870) also without a paleontological Chart. Charles then published books and articles of his own.


In an application for membership of the Sons of the American Revolution it is revealed that his father served in the Revolution as a fifer.

Amherst Ma.
Orra White Hitchcock

The life of Orra White Hitchcock is far less well documented than that of her husband, the geologist, minister, and educator Edward Hitchcock. Aside from two notebooks from her student days, a handful of letters to family and friends, two short diaries of travels to Virginia and Europe, and miscellaneous other papers, most of what she left behind is her art.

Most of her artwork fixes on nature: botanical watercolors, landscape drawings, and the geological and paleontological illustrations she created for her husband’s publications and classroom use. There are also a few pictures of people, generally not portraits of people she knew, but faces as she imagined them, for example, of the Empress Marie Louise of France. There is no way to know what she would have done in her artistic life, or whether we ever would have heard of her, had she not married Edward Hitchcock, a husband who greatly appreciated her work, or if a long eulogy or if a long eulogy had not been written shortly after her death on May 26, 1863.

Orra White was born on March 8, 1796, to a comfortable farming family in South Hadley, Massachusetts. Her parents were Jarib and Ruth (Sherman) White. Of six children, only Orra and two brothers lived to adulthood. She was tutored at home along with her brothers and then attended a few academies, which was not an unusual practice at the time among young ladies of good family. What was unusual was the seriousness of her scholarship. Her parents were active supporters of education, making generous donations to Amherst Academy and, later, to Amherst College. It is likely that they were very proud of their accomplished daughter.

Much of what is known of Orra’s life appears in the stories on this website. She taught at Deerfield Academy for five years and for a time at Amherst Academy, before marrying Edward Hitchcock. After marriage, she stopped teaching in the classroom, but still lived an active intellectual and social life.

While Edward was a professor at Amherst College, the Hitchcock home hummed steadily along. Orra led prayer meetings there and held fortnightly receptions for students, faculty, and citizens of the town. She mended student’s clothing with a sewing circle and did charity work. She saw to the boarders, who were often tutors at the college. She entertained visitors, sometimes rather prestigious ones, who came to see her husband about rocks and fossils or religious or educational business. She joined the faculty and other faculty wives in the basic labor of laundering and cleaning for Commencement and other ceremonial occasions. Periods of quiet must have been rare. When traveling in Europe in her mid-50s, Orra was flummoxed when she had nothing productive to do.

Amid all this activity, her children were central to her life. Her firstborn died before turning two, and in 1832 another infant did not live long enough to be named. However, the other six children, two boys and four girls, made a lively household. Edward and Orra provided a life for their children that stimulated their minds and enthusiastically embraced art, music, and culture as much as it did religion. The children went to the privately run school of Helen and Emily Nelson, daughters of a Baptist minister, and then to Amherst Academy. Orra taught the girls to draw and paint. All of the children contributed to family life by performing chores.

Somehow, with so many demands on her time and attention, she managed to produce a large body of art: between 1830 and 1832, she prepared nine regional landscapes and four illustrations of fossils for Edward’s Report on the Geology, Mineralogy, Botany, and Zoology of Massachusetts, all while tending to three very young children (and losing the unnamed infant in 1832). She seems not to have had a studio, so we can only imagine her working at a kitchen table, perhaps, or she may have had someone to tend to the children while she stole a few hours to draw. She must have had use of a larger space on campus when she created the big pieces on linen for Edward’s classroom. Many of them were several feet long, although the 70-foot Iguanadon was the only truly enormous one. The classroom pieces are undated, assumed to have been created between 1828 and 1840.

At age 59, she took a bad fall from which she never fully recovered, although that did not keep her from traveling to other towns in Massachusetts or from visiting her children. When Orra died on May 26, 1863, she was surrounded by her family, all but one whom she had encouraged to slip away for a while to run an errand.

It is unfortunate that the only known photographs of her were taken late in life. As was the case so often in those days, she is unsmiling, but still, her intelligence shows through. Historical records are never complete, and it could be wished that we knew more about Orra White Hitchcock, but clearly she was a remarkable, accomplished woman who managed to combine deeply held Calvinist beliefs with a light heart, a sense of humor, a strong work ethic, artistic talent, deep love for her own family, and a warm, unrestrained delight in other people. It is quite a legacy.

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